Tuesday, October 07, 2008

Bonus Act_Practical Problems_31

Star Ltd. suffered heavy losses during the current accounting year and hence was not able to pay minimum bonus to its workmen. Referring to the provisions of the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 state whether the company is required to give the minimum bonus irrespective of losses and it can be exempted by from payment of Bonus.

Subject to the other provisions of the Payment of Bonus Act, every employer shall be bound to pay to every employee in respect of every accounting year, minimum bonus which shall be 8.33% of the salary or wage earned by the employee during the accounting year or Rs.100, whichever is higher, whether or not the employer has any allocable surplus in the accounting year. But if the employee has not completed 15 years of age at the beginning of the accounting year he will be entitled to a minimum bonus which shall be 8.33% of the salary or wage during the accounting year Rs.60/- whichever is higher.

Even if the employer suffers losses during the accounting year he is bound to pay minimum bonus as prescribed by Section 10

NI Act_Practical Problems_56

P owes money to Q. Therefore, he makes a promissory note for the amount in favour of Q, for safety of transmission he cuts the note in half and posts one half to Q. He then changes his mind and calls upon Q to return the half of the note which he had sent. Q requires P to send the other half of the promissory note. Decide how a rights of the parties are to be adjusted.

The question arising in this problem is whether the making of promissory note is complete when one half of the note was delivered to Q. Under Section 46 of the N.I. Act, 1881, the making of a P/N is completed by delivery, actual or constructive. Delivery refers to the whole of the instrument and not merely a part of it. Delivery of half instrument cannot be treated as constructive delivery of the whole. So the claim of Q to have the other half the P/N sent to him is not maintainable. P is justified in demanding the return of the first half sent by him. He can change his mind and refuse to send the other half of the P/N.