Monday, August 25, 2008

Patent Act-12

What are the criteria for naming inventors in an application for patent?

The naming of inventors is normally decided on the basis of the following criteria:

i. All persons who contribute towards development of patentable features of an invention should be named inventor(s).

ii. All persons, who have made intellectual contribution in achieving the final results of the research work leading to a patent, should be named inventor(s).

iii. A person who has not contributed intellectually in the development of an invention is not entitled to be included as an inventor. iv. A person who provides ideas needed to produce the ‘germs of the invention’ need not himself / herself carry out the experiments, constructs the apparatus with his/her own hands or make the drawings himself/herself. The person may take the help or others. Such person who have helped in conducting the experiments, constructing apparatus or making the drawings or models without providing any intellectual inputs are not entitled to be named inventors.

Quite often difficulties are experienced in deciding the names of inventors. To avoid such a situation, it is very essential that all scientists engaged in research should keep factual, clear and accurate recorded of daily work done by them in the form of diary. The pages in the diary should be consecutively numbered and the entries made be signed both by the scientists and the concerned leader.

Patent Act_11

What are the essential patent documents to be generated and submitted by a potential patentee?
There are two types of patent documents usually known as patent specification, namely
(i) Provisional Specification and (ii) Complete Specification
Provisional Specification
A provisional specification is usually filed to establish priority of the invention in case the disclosed invention is only at a conceptual stage and a delay is expected in submitting full and specific description of the invention. Although, a patent application accompanied with provisional specification does not confer any legal patent rights to the applicants, it is, however, a very important document to establish the earliest ownership of an invention. The provisional specification is a permanent and independent scientific cum legal document and no amendment is allowed in this. No patent is granted on the basis of a provisional specification. It has to be a followed by a complete specification for obtaining a patent for the said invention. Complete specification must be submitted within 12 months of filing the provisional specification. This period can be extended by 3 months. It is not necessary to file an application with provisional specification before the complete specification. An application with complete specification can be filed right at the first instance.
Complete Specification
Submission of complete specification is necessary to obtain a patent The contents of a complete specification would include the following
1. Title of the invention.
2. Field to which the invention belongs .
3. Background of the invention including prior art giving drawbacks of the known inventions & practices.
4. Complete description of the invention along with experimental results.
5. Drawings etc. essential for understanding the invention.
6. Claims, which are statements, related to the invention on which legal proprietorship is being sought. Therefore the claims have to be drafted very carefully.

Patent Act_10

How does one keep a patent in force for the full patent term?

A patent has to be maintained by paying the maintenance fees every year. If the maintenance fees is not paid, the patent will cease to remain in force and the invention becomes open to public. Anyone can then utilize the patent without the danger of infringing the patent.

Patent Act_9

What is the term of a patent in the Indian system?

(a) Five years from the date of sealing of the patent or seven years from the date of the patent (i. e. the date of filing the complete specification), whichever period is shorter, for an invention claiming the method or process of manufacture of a substance, where the substance is intended or capable of being used as a drug, medicine or food.
(b)Fourteen years from the date of patent in respect of any other patentable invention.